In 2006, James Lovelock published his book The Revenge of Gaia. His central thesis is that Gaia, the interactive, living planet, could be punishing a fossil fuel-addicted, climate changing humanity by making the earth uninhabitable for people. Lovelock implied that we may soon force Gaia into red-hot mode, and that she could ultimately shake human species off. E.F. Schumacher suggested 45 years ago, “In our victory in our battle against nature we will find ourselves on the losing side.” The pandemic may be capitalised as an opportunity for a paradigm shift from anthropocentric politics to eco-centric politics.
Ecological issues have been a part of political agenda in Western world ever since 1980s. In the global arena, the Stockholm Conference (1972), Brundtland Report (1987) and Rio Summit (1992) marked the rise of Green Politics in international discourse. There around 90 green political parties, combining ecological issues with social justice in their agenda, working across the world. The Global Greens is the international confederation of green parties. The first green party was formed in New Zealand in 1972 – the Values Party. Next year, the Ecology Party was formed in the UK. Thereafter, the green parties proliferated in Europe. The Global Greens was formed in 1992 on the side-lines of Rio Earth Summit. The Global Greens Congress of 2001 at Canberra released a manifesto called GlobalGreens Charter. Participatory democracy, non-violence, social justice, sustainable development, pluralism, and ecological wisdom are the core ideals of the Global Greens Charter. It addresses poverty and climate change. Green parties have representation in most of European parliaments. Green Parties are part of ruling coalitions in Austria, Finland, Sweden and Luxemburg.